These maps, Parliamentary constituencies (1957) and Seasonal Cattle Movements (1951), were lifted from the British Library's online gallery. They're too large to display as image overlays so I've used QGIS to reference the images and chop them up into tiles.

Parliamentary constituencies (1957)

The results of Sudan's Census of 1955/56 were announced in 1957 and put the population at 10,200,000.1 Parliamentary constituencies were redrawn on the basis of the census and their number was increased from 97 to 173 in preparation for elections scheduled for 1958.2

Seasonal Cattle Movements (1951)

I don't know anything about this map. The Anglo-Egyptian government created a survey department that by the 1930s had produced maps for the entire country. This one is partly a tsetse "belt" map. D.J. Lewis, 'The Tsetse fly problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan', Sudan Notes and Records 30, no. 2 (1949), pp. 179-211. Tsetse fly maps were meant, partly, to reveal barriers to southward extensions of grazing. (Vegetation type maps were used by colonial officials to reveal the extent of "unimproved grazing land.") It is also a seasonal livestock map. The Livestock and Veterinary Policy Committee was formed in 1946. A survey of all of Sudan's grazing areas was begun in 1947, when a pasture research officer was appointed. (It was completed in 1953.) A few years later, in early 1947, dimidium bromide became available for mass inoculations. (The survey department also produced a Wet Season population distribution map (1951).) These maps came in various scales: a 1:4,000,000 vegetation map, the 1:2,000,000 parliamentary and seasonal cattle movement maps, and so on. The 1:250,000 series covers the whole country and is available on-line. While it is "essentially the product of reconnaissance survey, having been compiled from route sketches, local surveys, and the like, mainly by administrators and army officers in the early years of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium," J.H.G Lebon says, it "provides, on the whole, a reliable representation of inhabited areas."3 Mostly, these maps were meant to help colonial officials "on trek" to find their subjects.


1 Population figures for the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan varied widely during the early years of colonial rule. Isler and Rotach provide a description of population counts known to have been made prior to the first National Census of 1955/56. Isler & Rotach, "A Bibliographical Summary of pre-census Demographic Efforts in the Sudan," In Krotki and Karel Jozef, eds., The Population of Sudan, Report on the Sixth Annual Conference (Khartoum: Philosophical Society of Sudan, Department of Statistics, Government of the Republic of Sudan, 1958). A pilot population census was carried out in 1953 in preparation for The First Population Census of Sudan in 1955/6. See: The First Population Census of Sudan. Report on the 1953 Pilot Population Census (Khartoum: Republic of Sudan Ministry for Social Affairs, 1955) and F. Rehfisch, 'An Unrecorded Population County of Omdurman,' Sudan Notes and Records 46 (1965), pp. 33-39. In 1903, the population of was variously estimated to be 3.5 million or 1.8 million. The first National Census of Sudan, "the first—and last—plausible census of the whole of Sudan," was carried out in 1955-56. Justin Willis, Omer Egemi & Philip Winter, "Land & Water," In John Ryle, Justin Willis, Suliman Baldo & Jok Madut Jok, eds., The Sudan Handbook (Rife Vally Institute, 2012), p. 12. The Census of 1955/56 differed from a "census" as one is usually defined in two ways, each required by the limited resources available for the census. The enumeration was carried out over a period of 14 months, and rural populations, which accounted for roughly 90 per-cent of the population, were sampled rather than completely enumerated. Urban populations and people housed in institutions, such as prisons, were directly counted. The 1955/56 census had 94 enumeration areas and began in June 1955.

2 The 1953 Agreement ("Concerning Self-government and Self-determination for the Sudan"), had established ninety-two territorial constituencies and a number of qualitative constituencies (restricted to those who had completed secondary education). "In effect, these rules had already established a hierarchy of political inclusion, a sort of graded citizenship in which women and the uneducated ranked low. An uneducated woman had no vote; but an educated man might have three—one territorial, one Graduates’ and one for the Senate. The rural, too, were systematically under-represented, for the drawing of constituency boundaries largely favoured Sudan’s towns." Justin Willis, '"A Model of its Kind": Representation and Performance in the Sudan Self-government Election of 1953,' The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 35, no. 3 (2007), 489.

3 J.H.G. Lebon, 'Land Use Mapping in Sudan,' Economic Geography 35, no. 1 (1959), p. 60.

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